SO WHAT IS EPILEPSY?

Epilepsy refers to a spectrum of brain disorders that disrupts the brain normal electrical activity resulting in a seizure. Seizures and epilepsy are not the same, seizures are caused by epilepsy and vary in type, while epilepsy is an actual malfunction of the brain’s electrical system controlled by cells in the brain called neurons. Seizures can be the result of anything that caused these cells not to operate properly. These causes could range from illness like a high fever to actual damage to the brain. On the other hand, epilepsy can occur due to the following:

  • Improper wiring of the brain’s electrical system
  • An imbalance in the chemicals that control brain activity, called neurotransmitters
  • Disruption or changes in brain cells or channels, like those that occur in people with Alzheimer’s
  • A combination of these brain-­‐related problems

How epilepsy appears and affects a person varies based on the cause and type of seizures a person may have. Regardless of the cause or type, there are three stages people go through when having a seizure. The signs and symptoms associated with seizures occur in phases and the beginning, middle, and end stages.

  • The beginning stage of seizures is known as the Prodome Symptoms during this stage are vague and do not occur in every person. When they occur they act as a warning sign of pending or possible seizure. Symptoms during this phase may involve having unusual feelings, sensations, or changes in your behavior that can happen days or minutes before an actual seizure. Most epileptic seizures can occur without warning.
  • The middle stage is referred to as the Ictal phase and this is the stage when physical or

observable activities of the seizure begin until they end. This stage of the seizure can vary in duration lasting anywhere from a few seconds to several minutes. Keep in mind that any seizure that lasts more than 5 minutes should be considered a medical emergency! Common symptoms seen in the Ictal phase are:

  • Change in level of consciousness (passing out)
  • Changes in ability to speak and/or hear
  • Trouble swallowing
  • Twitching or jerking movements of part or all of the body
  • Sweaty or clammy skins
  • Biting and clenching your teeth

 

  • The end or final stage of a seizure is also known as the Postictal phase and involves what a person experiences after they had a seizure. This phase of recovery can happen immediately following the seizure or last for an hour or more as they person and their brain activity returns to Following are behaviors and/or symptoms that are seen in people in the postictal phase of a seizure:
    • Feeling sleepy or tired
    • Unable to remember the seizure or feeling confused
    • Bruises, cuts, or other physical injures including injuries to the head
    • Weakness and fatigue

 

 

 

 

 

Traumatic Brain Injury Fact Sheet – National Brain Health Center for                          2

African-­‐Americans (a program of The Balm In Gilead, Inc.)

 

In addition to the different stages of seizures there are also different types of seizures. There are two primary types of seizures: Generalized and Focal or Partial. Generalized seizures affects the entire brain where focal seizures only impact one area of the brain. Generalized seizures are characterized by the severity of the symptoms experienced during the seizure.

Seizures in which a person has convulsions where the whole body is affected are known as Grand-­‐mal seizures. Less severe seizures that lasts only a few seconds are called absence or petit-­‐mal seizures.

Focal seizures symptoms vary depending on the part of the brain affected. Simple focal seizures affect a small part of the brain and can cause twitching or a change in sensation, such as a strange taste or smell.

Complex focal seizures still occur in one area of the brain but may cause a person with epilepsy to be confused or dazed.

Epilepsy is very common among African-­‐Americans

Current statistics estimate that 1 in 26 people will develop epilepsy during their lifetime resulting in nearly 2 million people living with this debilitating brain disorder. African-­‐ Americans account for nearly one-­‐third of all who have been diagnosed as having epilepsy and more than half of them actively having seizures. This means that these individuals have at least one seizure in the past year and are taking medications to help control them. This poses a challenge for the African-­‐American community as epilepsy significantly impacts a person’s ability to perform daily activities, to work, to get an education, and to take care of their families.

 

CAN YOU PREVENT EPILEPSY?

The short answer is no since epilepsy occurs suddenly there are no ways to prevent it from happening. For those that are living with epilepsy there are things you can do help prevent or decrease the frequency of the seizures caused by epilepsy like making sure the follow your doctor’s treatment plan, taking your medications on time and as prescribed, and avoid things that might trigger a seizure. There is no cure for epilepsy but with proper medications, medical devices, and a healthy lifestyle most people with epilepsy can live a normal and productive life.

 

 

Traumatic Brain Injury Fact Sheet – National Brain Health Center for                          3

African-­‐Americans (a program of The Balm In Gilead, Inc.)

 

It is also important to know and understand the Do’s and Don’ts for dealing with epilepsy and seizures.

DO’S – protect the person from hurting themselves and those around them, help with breathing if they are unable to, stay with them until they have recovered or medical help arrives, and support them by letting them know they had a seizure if they can’t remember.

DON’TS – restrain a person having a seizure, put anything in their mouth, or be judgmental.

 

 

HOW IS EPILEPSY TREATED?

Epilepsy can be treated by either medications, implanted devices, diet, surgery or a combination of these therapies. Most people are able to control the seizures caused by their epilepsy with medications called anti-­‐epileptic drugs or AEDs. The type and severity of the seizure will determine what and how much medication is needed. Good adherence to your medications is important to managing and controlling your epilepsy.

Surgery to correct the cause of the epilepsy may be an option to repair damages or deficiencies in the brain that causes the seizures. Another option involves using medical devices that help to correct and control the electrical impulses in the brain. Vagus nerve stimulation is a common device used to treat seizures. The device is implanted under your skin and sends mild electrical pulses to the Vagus nerve that helps control functions of our nervous system.

Like with most illnesses and disease living a healthy lifestyle is always necessary, epilepsy is no different. Person with seizures should strive to:

  • Exercise on a regular and consistent basis
  • Get plenty of sleep; a lack of sleep could trigger seizures
  • Eat a well-­‐balanced diet
  • Reduce and manage stress

 

Traumatic Brain Injury Fact Sheet – National Brain Health Center for                          4

African-­‐Americans (a program of The Balm In Gilead, Inc.)

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke -­‐ http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/epilepsy/epilepsy.htm

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Injury Prevention & Control -­‐ http://www.cdc.gov/epilepsy/index.html

Epilepsy Foundation www.epilepsyfoundation.org

What is epilepsy?

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Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures, which are sudden, uncontrollable electrical disturbances in the brain. These seizures can vary widely in their presentation, ranging from momentary lapses of awareness or muscle twitches to full-blown convulsions and loss of consciousness.

The exact cause of epilepsy is often unknown, although it can be attributed to various factors, including genetics, brain injuries, infections, prenatal injury, or developmental disorders. In some cases, epilepsy may be a result of a brain tumor or stroke.

Seizures in epilepsy are classified into two main types:

  1. Focal seizures (partial seizures): These seizures originate in a specific area of the brain and can affect only one part of the body or cause unusual sensations or emotions. Focal seizures can be further divided into simple focal seizures (no loss of consciousness) and complex focal seizures (altered awareness or consciousness).
  2. Generalized seizures: These seizures involve both sides of the brain and can cause loss of consciousness and convulsions. Generalized seizures include absence seizures (brief loss of awareness), tonic-clonic seizures (previously known as grand mal seizures, involving muscle stiffening and jerking), atonic seizures (loss of muscle tone, causing sudden falls), and myoclonic seizures (sudden, brief jerks of the muscles).

Diagnosis of epilepsy typically involves a thorough medical history, neurological examination, and various tests such as electroencephalogram (EEG), MRI, and blood tests. Treatment usually includes antiepileptic medications to control or reduce the frequency and severity of seizures. In some cases, surgery or other interventions may be considered, especially if medications are ineffective or if there’s a specific underlying cause that can be addressed surgically.

Living with epilepsy involves managing the condition with medication, lifestyle modifications (such as getting enough sleep, avoiding triggers, and maintaining a healthy lifestyle), and regular medical follow-ups to monitor progress and adjust treatment as needed.

 

what are the stages of epilepsy?

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Epilepsy does not progress through distinct stages like some other medical conditions. Instead, it is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures. However, epilepsy can be classified based on the type of seizures and the severity of the condition. Here are some classifications and stages related to epilepsy:

  1. Seizure Types:
    • Focal (Partial) Seizures: These seizures originate in a specific area of the brain and can cause localized symptoms, such as muscle twitching, altered sensations, or changes in emotions or consciousness.
    • Generalized Seizures: These seizures involve both sides of the brain from the beginning and can lead to loss of consciousness and generalized symptoms, such as convulsions or sudden falls.
  2. Epilepsy Syndromes:
    • Idiopathic Epilepsy: This refers to epilepsy with no identifiable cause. It often begins in childhood or adolescence and may have a genetic component.
    • Symptomatic Epilepsy: This type of epilepsy occurs due to an underlying cause, such as brain injury, infection, tumor, stroke, or developmental disorder.
    • Cryptogenic Epilepsy: In these cases, the cause of epilepsy is suspected but not confirmed, despite thorough evaluations.
  3. Seizure Severity:
    • Mild Epilepsy: Some individuals experience infrequent seizures that are well-controlled with medication and have minimal impact on daily life.
    • Moderate Epilepsy: Seizures occur more frequently or are more challenging to control with medication, requiring careful management and monitoring.
    • Severe Epilepsy: This includes cases where seizures are frequent, difficult to manage, and significantly impact daily activities, quality of life, and cognitive functions.

It’s important to note that epilepsy is a highly variable condition, and individuals with epilepsy can experience a wide range of seizure types, frequencies, and responses to treatment. Treatment and management strategies are tailored to each person’s specific needs, and advancements in medical research continue to improve our understanding and approach to epilepsy care.

You

How common is epilepsy based on racial demographics?

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Epilepsy can affect people of all racial and ethnic backgrounds, but there are some variations in its prevalence and management across different racial demographics. Here are some key points regarding the prevalence of epilepsy based on racial demographics:

  1. Overall Prevalence: Epilepsy is a relatively common neurological disorder globally. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), around 50 million people worldwide have epilepsy.
  2. Racial Disparities: Studies have shown some variations in the prevalence of epilepsy among different racial and ethnic groups. For example:
    • In the United States, non-Hispanic Black individuals have a slightly higher prevalence of epilepsy compared to non-Hispanic White individuals.
    • Some studies have indicated a higher prevalence of epilepsy among Hispanic/Latino populations compared to non-Hispanic White populations.
    • Asian populations may have a lower prevalence of epilepsy compared to other racial groups.
  3. Factors Influencing Prevalence: Several factors can contribute to these variations, including genetic predispositions, access to healthcare, socioeconomic factors, and cultural differences in reporting and managing epilepsy.
  4. Healthcare Disparities: Racial and ethnic minorities may experience disparities in healthcare access and quality, which can impact the diagnosis, treatment, and management of epilepsy. Factors such as limited access to specialist care, language barriers, and cultural beliefs about epilepsy can influence outcomes.
  5. Research and Awareness: Efforts to improve epilepsy awareness, access to healthcare services, culturally sensitive education, and research on genetic and environmental factors influencing epilepsy are essential for addressing disparities and improving outcomes across diverse racial and ethnic groups.

Overall, while epilepsy can affect people of all races and ethnicities, there are notable differences in its prevalence and management within various demographic groups. Addressing these disparities requires a comprehensive approach that includes equitable access to healthcare, culturally competent care, and ongoing research to better understand the complex factors contributing to epilepsy in different populations.

You

how is epilepsy diagnosed?

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Diagnosing epilepsy typically involves a comprehensive evaluation that includes medical history, neurological examination, and various tests to assess brain activity and rule out other conditions. Here are the steps commonly involved in diagnosing epilepsy:

  1. Medical History: The doctor will begin by taking a detailed medical history, which includes asking about the patient’s symptoms, seizure episodes, any potential triggers or auras (warning signs before a seizure), family history of epilepsy or other neurological conditions, medical conditions, medications, and overall health.
  2. Physical Examination: A neurological examination is conducted to assess motor functions, coordination, reflexes, sensory perception, and cognitive abilities. This helps the doctor evaluate the patient’s overall neurological health and look for any signs or abnormalities that may suggest epilepsy or other neurological disorders.
  3. Seizure Description: Patients are often asked to describe their seizure experiences in detail, including the type of seizure, any aura or warning signs, duration, frequency, triggers (if known), and postictal (after-seizure) symptoms.
  4. Diagnostic Tests:
    • Electroencephalogram (EEG): This test measures electrical activity in the brain and can help detect abnormal brain wave patterns that are characteristic of epilepsy. EEG recordings may be done while the patient is at rest or during specific activities that can trigger seizures, such as flashing lights or sleep deprivation.
    • Imaging Studies: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) or Computed Tomography (CT) scans of the brain may be performed to identify any structural abnormalities, such as tumors, lesions, or scarring, that could be causing seizures.
    • Blood Tests: Blood tests may be done to check for underlying medical conditions, infections, metabolic disorders, or genetic factors that could contribute to seizures.
  5. Video EEG Monitoring: In some cases, patients may undergo prolonged video EEG monitoring in a specialized epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU) to record seizure activity over an extended period. This can provide more detailed information about seizure types, frequency, triggers, and brain activity patterns.
  6. Neuropsychological Evaluation: Depending on the patient’s symptoms and history, a neuropsychological assessment may be conducted to evaluate cognitive functions, memory, language skills, and emotional well-being. This can help determine the impact of epilepsy on daily functioning and guide treatment planning.
  7. Other Specialized Tests: In certain situations, additional tests or evaluations may be recommended, such as genetic testing for specific epilepsy syndromes, sleep studies to assess sleep-related seizures, or functional imaging techniques to map brain activity during tasks.

After a thorough evaluation, the healthcare provider will review all the information gathered from history, examination, and test results to make a diagnosis of epilepsy or another neurological disorder. It’s important for patients to communicate openly with their healthcare team, follow recommended diagnostic procedures, and participate actively in the evaluation process to ensure accurate diagnosis and appropriate management.

You

what types of surgery help to control seizures?

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Surgery can be an effective treatment option for controlling seizures in certain individuals with epilepsy, particularly those whose seizures are not well-controlled with medications. Several types of surgical procedures are available to help manage epilepsy, depending on factors such as the type of seizures, their origin in the brain, and the individual’s overall health. Here are some common types of surgery used to control seizures:

  1. Temporal Lobectomy: This is one of the most common types of epilepsy surgery, especially for individuals with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). In a temporal lobectomy, the surgeon removes part of the temporal lobe of the brain, including the hippocampus and surrounding areas. This procedure is effective for reducing seizures in many patients with drug-resistant TLE.
  2. Lesionectomy: If the seizures originate from a specific brain lesion, such as a tumor, scar tissue (gliosis), or malformation of blood vessels (AVM), a lesionectomy may be performed. The surgeon removes the abnormal tissue or lesion to eliminate the source of seizures.
  3. Hemispherectomy/Hemispherotomy: These procedures involve disconnecting or removing a hemisphere (half) of the brain, typically performed in cases of severe epilepsy that originates from one hemisphere and affects the entire side of the body. Hemispherectomy may be partial (removing part of the hemisphere) or complete (removing the entire hemisphere).
  4. Corpus Callosotomy: This surgery is performed to treat certain types of generalized seizures, such as drop attacks (atonic seizures) or tonic-clonic seizures that involve both sides of the brain. The surgeon cuts or disconnects the corpus callosum, the bundle of nerves that connects the two hemispheres of the brain, to prevent the spread of seizures between hemispheres.
  5. Multiple Subpial Transections (MST): MST is a technique used to treat epilepsy that originates in areas of the brain responsible for critical functions (e.g., language, motor skills) where complete removal of tissue is not possible. Instead of removing brain tissue, the surgeon makes small cuts (transections) in specific areas to disrupt the spread of seizures while preserving essential brain functions.
  6. Responsive Neurostimulation (RNS) Therapy: Although not technically surgery in the traditional sense, RNS involves implanting a device similar to a pacemaker in the brain to detect and interrupt seizure activity in real-time. It is used for individuals with focal epilepsy whose seizures are not controlled with medications and are localized to specific brain regions.
  7. Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS): While not a surgical procedure to remove brain tissue, VNS involves implanting a device that stimulates the vagus nerve in the neck. This stimulation can help reduce seizure frequency and severity in some patients with drug-resistant epilepsy.

It’s important to note that surgery for epilepsy is not suitable for everyone, and candidacy depends on factors such as the type of seizures, location of seizure onset, neurological assessments, imaging studies, and response to medication trials. A comprehensive evaluation by a multidisciplinary epilepsy team, including neurologists, neurosurgeons, neuropsychologists, and other specialists, is necessary to determine the most appropriate treatment approach for each individual.

You

what are some of the myths about epilepsy?

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There are several myths and misconceptions about epilepsy that can lead to stigma, misunderstanding, and discrimination. It’s essential to debunk these myths and promote accurate information to support individuals living with epilepsy and their families. Here are some common myths about epilepsy:

  1. Myth: Epilepsy is a Mental Illness: Fact: Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures. It is not a mental illness, although it can be associated with certain cognitive and emotional challenges in some cases.
  2. Myth: Epilepsy is Contagious: Fact: Epilepsy is not contagious. It cannot be transmitted through casual contact or social interaction with someone who has epilepsy.
  3. Myth: People with Epilepsy Have Intellectual Disabilities: Fact: Epilepsy itself does not cause intellectual disabilities. However, some individuals with epilepsy may have cognitive impairments or learning difficulties, especially if their seizures are severe or if they have an underlying neurological condition.
  4. Myth: Only Children Get Epilepsy: Fact: Epilepsy can affect individuals of all ages, from infants to older adults. While some types of epilepsy may begin in childhood, others can develop later in life.
  5. Myth: Seizures Are Always Convulsive: Fact: Seizures can manifest in various ways, and not all seizures involve convulsions or loss of consciousness. Some seizures may cause brief lapses in awareness, muscle twitches, sensory changes, or altered emotions.
  6. Myth: You Should Put Objects in the Mouth During a Seizure: Fact: It is not recommended to put objects in the mouth of someone having a seizure. This myth stems from the outdated belief that people with seizures might swallow their tongue. Instead, it’s important to protect the person from injury by gently guiding them to a safe place and cushioning their head.
  7. Myth: Epilepsy Cannot Be Treated: Fact: While epilepsy is a chronic condition, it can often be effectively managed with medications, lifestyle modifications, and, in some cases, surgical interventions. Treatment aims to control seizures, improve quality of life, and minimize the impact of epilepsy on daily activities.
  8. Myth: People with Epilepsy Shouldn’t Participate in Sports or Activities: Fact: Many individuals with epilepsy can safely participate in sports and recreational activities with appropriate precautions and supervision. It’s essential to work with healthcare providers to assess individual risks and develop strategies to minimize potential hazards during physical activities.
  9. Myth: Epilepsy Always Requires Special Education or Employment Restrictions: Fact: With proper management and support, many people with epilepsy lead fulfilling lives, pursue education, and engage in various careers. Accommodations and adjustments may be needed in certain situations, but having epilepsy does not automatically limit educational or vocational opportunities.
  10. Myth: Epilepsy is Rare: Fact: Epilepsy is relatively common, affecting millions of people worldwide. While the prevalence and severity of epilepsy can vary, it is not a rare condition.

Educating the public, promoting awareness, and fostering empathy and support for individuals with epilepsy can help combat these myths and create a more inclusive and understanding society.

You

what medical professions help with epilepsy?

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Several medical professionals play key roles in the diagnosis, treatment, and management of epilepsy. These professionals work collaboratively to provide comprehensive care, support, and education for individuals with epilepsy and their families. Here are some of the medical professions involved in epilepsy care:

  1. Neurologist: Neurologists are physicians specializing in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders affecting the nervous system, including epilepsy. They conduct neurological assessments, order diagnostic tests (such as EEG and imaging studies), prescribe antiepileptic medications, and develop treatment plans tailored to each patient’s needs.
  2. Neurosurgeon: Neurosurgeons specialize in surgical interventions for neurological conditions, including epilepsy surgery. They perform evaluations to determine surgical candidacy, discuss surgical options (such as temporal lobectomy or lesionectomy), and perform epilepsy surgeries to reduce or eliminate seizures in eligible patients.
  3. Epileptologist: An epileptologist is a neurologist with specialized training and expertise in epilepsy diagnosis and management. They often work in epilepsy centers and provide comprehensive evaluations, medication adjustments, seizure monitoring, and guidance on advanced treatment options, such as surgical interventions or neuromodulation therapies.
  4. Neuropsychologist: Neuropsychologists assess cognitive functions, memory, language skills, emotional well-being, and quality of life in individuals with epilepsy. They conduct neuropsychological evaluations to understand how epilepsy affects cognitive abilities and develop interventions to address cognitive challenges and optimize daily functioning.
  5. Neurophysiologist: Neurophysiologists specialize in studying the electrical activity of the brain and nervous system. They may perform and interpret EEG tests to diagnose epilepsy, localize seizure onset zones, monitor brain activity during seizures, and assess treatment response over time.
  6. Pediatric Neurologist: Pediatric neurologists specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of neurological disorders in children, including pediatric epilepsy. They work closely with pediatric epilepsy teams to provide age-appropriate care, monitor developmental progress, and address unique needs and challenges in pediatric epilepsy management.
  7. Clinical Nurse Specialist (CNS) or Nurse Practitioner (NP): CNSs or NPs specializing in epilepsy care provide expert nursing assessments, patient education, medication management, seizure monitoring, and coordination of care for individuals with epilepsy. They play a vital role in patient advocacy, support, and continuity of care.
  8. Genetic Counselor: Genetic counselors assess the genetic factors contributing to epilepsy, especially in cases of suspected genetic syndromes or familial patterns of epilepsy. They provide genetic counseling, discuss risk factors, facilitate genetic testing, and offer guidance on family planning and genetic implications.
  9. Pharmacist: Pharmacists specializing in neurology or epilepsy pharmacotherapy play a crucial role in medication management. They review medication regimens, ensure proper dosing and administration, monitor for drug interactions and side effects, and educate patients about their antiepileptic medications.
  10. Social Worker or Counselor: Social workers and counselors provide emotional support, counseling, and assistance with navigating social, emotional, and practical challenges related to epilepsy. They help individuals and families access resources, cope with stigma, manage stress, and enhance overall well-being.

Collaboration among these medical professionals, along with input from other specialists such as neuroradiologists, neurophysiologists, rehabilitation therapists, and primary care providers, is essential for delivering comprehensive and holistic care for individuals living with epilepsy. Epilepsy centers and multidisciplinary teams often integrate these diverse expertise to optimize outcomes and improve the quality of life for patients with epilepsy.

You

What medicines control epilepsy?

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There are several medications, known as antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) or anticonvulsants, that are commonly used to control seizures in individuals with epilepsy. The choice of medication depends on factors such as the type of seizures, the individual’s age and overall health, the presence of other medical conditions, and the potential side effects of the medications. Here are some of the medications commonly prescribed to control epilepsy:

  1. Carbamazepine (Tegretol, Carbatrol): This medication is effective for treating focal seizures and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. It works by stabilizing nerve cell membranes and reducing abnormal electrical activity in the brain.
  2. Valproate (Depakote, Depakene): Valproate is used to treat various seizure types, including focal seizures, absence seizures, and generalized seizures. It increases the brain’s levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a neurotransmitter that inhibits seizure activity.
  3. Lamotrigine (Lamictal): Lamotrigine is effective for treating focal seizures, generalized tonic-clonic seizures, and absence seizures. It works by blocking sodium channels in the brain, reducing the spread of abnormal electrical signals.
  4. Levetiracetam (Keppra): Levetiracetam is used to treat focal seizures and generalized seizures. It modulates neurotransmitter release and may have a broad spectrum of antiepileptic effects.
  5. Topiramate (Topamax): Topiramate is effective for treating focal seizures, generalized tonic-clonic seizures, and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. It works by enhancing GABA activity and reducing excitatory neurotransmission.
  6. Phenytoin (Dilantin): Phenytoin is used to treat focal seizures and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. It works by stabilizing voltage-gated sodium channels in nerve cells, preventing abnormal electrical activity.
  7. Oxcarbazepine (Trileptal): Oxcarbazepine is similar to carbamazepine and is used to treat focal seizures. It reduces seizure activity by stabilizing nerve cell membranes.
  8. Gabapentin (Neurontin): Gabapentin is effective for treating focal seizures and neuropathic pain. It modulates calcium channels in nerve cells, reducing excitatory neurotransmission.
  9. Pregabalin (Lyrica): Pregabalin is used to treat focal seizures, neuropathic pain, and generalized anxiety disorder. It acts similarly to gabapentin, modulating calcium channels and reducing excitatory neurotransmission.
  10. Clobazam (Onfi): Clobazam is used to treat focal seizures and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. It enhances GABA activity in the brain, reducing seizure activity.

It’s important to note that each individual may respond differently to antiepileptic medications, and the effectiveness of a particular medication can vary. Additionally, some medications may have potential side effects, such as drowsiness, dizziness, cognitive impairment, weight changes, or mood changes. Healthcare providers carefully consider these factors when prescribing medications and monitor patients regularly to assess treatment response, adjust dosages as needed, and manage any side effects.

In some cases, individuals with epilepsy may require combination therapy (using more than one antiepileptic medication) to achieve optimal seizure control. For individuals with drug-resistant epilepsy or those who experience significant side effects from medications, other treatment options such as epilepsy surgery, neuromodulation therapies (e.g., vagus nerve stimulation), or ketogenic diet therapy may be considered.

You

what are some of the side effects of medicines that control seizures?

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Antiepileptic medications (AEDs) can be effective in controlling seizures, but like any medications, they may also cause side effects in some individuals. The specific side effects can vary depending on the type of medication, the dosage, and the individual’s response. Here are some common side effects associated with medications that control seizures:

  1. Drowsiness and Fatigue: Many antiepileptic drugs can cause drowsiness, fatigue, or lethargy, especially when starting a new medication or adjusting the dosage. This can affect concentration, alertness, and daily activities.
  2. Dizziness and Balance Problems: Some AEDs, such as carbamazepine, phenytoin, and topiramate, may cause dizziness, unsteadiness, or balance problems. This can increase the risk of falls, especially in older adults.
  3. Cognitive and Memory Changes: Certain antiepileptic medications, including topiramate and phenobarbital, may affect cognitive function, memory, and attention. This can manifest as difficulty concentrating, forgetfulness, or confusion.
  4. Gastrointestinal Disturbances: Side effects such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or constipation can occur with some AEDs, such as valproate and gabapentin. These gastrointestinal symptoms may improve over time or with dosage adjustments.
  5. Weight Changes: Some antiepileptic drugs, such as valproate, gabapentin, and pregabalin, can cause weight gain in some individuals. Conversely, medications like topiramate and zonisamide may lead to weight loss.
  6. Mood and Behavioral Changes: Certain AEDs may affect mood, emotions, or behavior. For example, lamotrigine and levetiracetam are associated with mood swings, irritability, or depression in some individuals.
  7. Skin Reactions: Rarely, some antiepileptic medications can cause skin reactions, such as rash or hypersensitivity reactions. Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis are severe but uncommon side effects associated with some AEDs.
  8. Bone Health: Long-term use of certain AEDs, particularly enzyme-inducing drugs like phenytoin and carbamazepine, may increase the risk of bone loss (osteoporosis) and fractures, especially in older adults.
  9. Liver and Blood Disorders: Some AEDs, such as valproate and carbamazepine, may affect liver function and blood cell counts. Regular monitoring of liver enzymes and blood counts is often recommended during treatment with these medications.
  10. Reproductive and Hormonal Effects: Valproate and some other AEDs may have adverse effects on reproductive health, including hormonal imbalances, menstrual irregularities, and increased risk of birth defects during pregnancy.

It’s important for individuals taking antiepileptic medications to be aware of potential side effects and communicate any concerns or changes with their healthcare provider. Healthcare providers carefully weigh the benefits of seizure control against the potential risks and side effects when prescribing medications. Dosage adjustments, medication changes, or additional interventions may be recommended to manage side effects and optimize treatment outcomes. Regular follow-up appointments and monitoring are crucial to evaluate treatment response, assess medication tolerability, and address any emerging concerns.

 

 

Seizures can be triggered by various factors, and triggers can vary widely among individuals with epilepsy. Identifying and managing triggers can be an important part of epilepsy management to reduce the frequency and severity of seizures. Here are some common triggers of seizures:

 

  1. **Missed Medications:** Irregular or missed doses of antiepileptic medications can lower medication levels in the bloodstream, increasing the risk of breakthrough seizures.

 

  1. **Sleep Deprivation:** Lack of adequate sleep or irregular sleep patterns can trigger seizures in some individuals. Ensuring good sleep hygiene and getting sufficient rest can help reduce this trigger.

 

  1. **Stress and Emotional Distress:** Emotional stress, anxiety, and intense emotions can contribute to seizure activity in some people. Stress management techniques such as relaxation exercises, mindfulness, and counseling may be beneficial.

 

  1. **Hormonal Changes:** Hormonal fluctuations, particularly in women, can influence seizure activity. Hormonal changes during menstrual cycles, pregnancy, menopause, or hormonal contraception may impact seizure control in some individuals.

 

  1. **Alcohol and Substance Use:** Alcohol consumption, recreational drug use, or certain medications can lower seizure thresholds and increase the likelihood of seizures. Avoiding or minimizing alcohol and drug use is important for seizure management.

 

  1. **Flickering Lights or Visual Patterns:** Certain visual stimuli, such as flashing lights, strobe lights, or intense visual patterns (e.g., video games), can trigger seizures in susceptible individuals with photosensitive epilepsy.

 

  1. **Illnesses and Infections:** Fever, infections (such as flu or urinary tract infections), and other illnesses can lower seizure thresholds, particularly in children with febrile seizures or individuals prone to seizures due to specific infections.

 

  1. **Fluctuations in Blood Sugar Levels:** Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) or rapid changes in blood sugar levels can trigger seizures in some individuals, especially those with diabetes or metabolic disorders.

 

  1. **Specific Foods or Food Additives:** Certain foods or food additives may act as triggers for some people with epilepsy. Common triggers include caffeine, monosodium glutamate (MSG), artificial sweeteners, and high-fat or high-sugar foods.

 

  1. **Heat and Environmental Factors:** Extreme heat, high humidity, or exposure to environmental triggers such as bright sunlight or overheating (e.g., hot baths, saunas) can trigger seizures in susceptible individuals.

 

  1. **Sensory Overload:** Overstimulation of sensory inputs, such as loud noises, strong odors, or crowded environments, can be triggering for some individuals with epilepsy, particularly those with sensory processing sensitivities.

 

  1. **Medication Interactions:** Certain medications, including over-the-counter medications, herbal supplements, and interactions between antiepileptic drugs, can affect seizure thresholds and trigger seizures in some cases.

 

It’s important for individuals with epilepsy and their caregivers to work closely with healthcare providers to identify potential triggers, develop strategies for seizure prevention, and make lifestyle adjustments as needed. Keeping a seizure diary or journal to track seizure activity, potential triggers, medication adherence, and other relevant factors can be helpful in identifying patterns and managing epilepsy effectively.


SEIZURE FREE

This information is not intended as medical advice. In the case of an emergency please request professional medical assistance.

Support for Epilepsy

Not every group does the same things. Even groups with similar activities may have different results because of the individuals involved. But in nearly every group, members seem to find PEACE:
Practice in skills and relationships
Encouragement from meeting others who have overcome challenges like your own
Acceptance by a group of people who share your feelings and experiences
Comfort from knowing that you are not alone
Empowerment through increased knowledge and confidence

Practice: Give it a try
If you’re a person with epilepsy, you may be nervous about socializing. Maybe kids on the playground teased you about having seizures. Maybe you weren’t allowed to participate in the same activities as other kids, so you didn’t have many chances to make friends or learn to do the things that others do for fun. In an epilepsy support group, you can practice making friends and participate in activities without worrying that you’ll be rejected because you have epilepsy.

Parents of children with epilepsy also can practice skills in a support group. They can get comfortable talking about the issues they need to discuss with teachers and doctors. They can even role-play those situations, or practice parenting skills.

Encouragement: You can succeed too

It’s nice to read stories (like some on this website) about people with epilepsy who have done well—people with good educations, good jobs, happy families. It’s even nicer to meet these people in person. But it’s also nice to meet people who are still struggling. When they have a success to report, you can cheer them on and know that they will be there to cheer your successes.

Acceptance: You’re OK

It’s easy to get the idea from TV and movies that the way to be accepted is to be good-looking, wear the right clothes, do the right things—and not have epilepsy. Meeting other people with epilepsy and finding that you like being around them (most of them, at least) teaches that you too are a person that people want to be with. No matter how many seizures you have, there are plenty of times when you’re just you, a person who knows things and can do things—a person who’s good to know.

If you’re a parent of a child with epilepsy, you also need to feel acceptance. You may feel guilty because you’re not patient enough or you don’t spend enough time with your child. When you meet other parents with the same challenges, you can learn that it’s impossible to be a perfect parent. It’s not wrong to have angry feelings or to wish for more time for yourself. It’s just human. Parents in a support group can help each other to do better without feeling like a failure because they can’t do it all.

Comfort: You are not alone

Epilepsy can be lonely. If you have epilepsy, you know that even the most loving family members and friends can’t really understand your feelings about being injured or embarrassed after a seizure. They can’t know how restricted you feel. They don’t wonder why they’re the only ones who have to take pills every day to keep the world from turning upside down.

If you’re the parent of a child with epilepsy, you’re probably dealing with problems that your parents never faced. The other parents in the neighborhood aren’t facing them either. A support group heals this kind of loneliness.

Empowerment: “Knowledge is power”

In a support group, you might gain knowledge that could help you control your seizures, buy your seizure medicine cheaper, find a job, get more help for your child in school—almost anything, depending on how the group operates and who the other members are. Even if you just learn more about what epilepsy is, that will help you explain it to others. Then they won’t be so worried when you’re around.

 

OK, I’m sold. Where can I find a support group?

Unless you’re in a remote area, there’s probably a support group nearby. In the United States, a good place to start looking is your local Epilepsy Foundation affiliate. Support groups also may be organized by hospitals or epilepsy centers. Your neurologist or epileptologist may have information. Sometimes groups are listed in the newspaper too.

Can’t find one?

If you’re a parent and can’t find an epilepsy group in your area, you may get some benefit from joining a group for parents of children with other chronic disorders. Some of the problems that you’re facing, such as dealing with schools and the health care system or disciplining your child, are the same. The day-to-day problems of parents whose children have another disorder are different, but you do have much in common:

  • You all share a concern for your child’s future.
  • You all want to keep your child safe but need to watch out for overprotectiveness.
  • You all need to work on emphasizing your child’s abilities instead of weaknesses.

If you’ve explored all the possibilities and haven’t found a suitable group, maybe you should start one! Talk to your doctor or someone at the Epilepsy Foundation. You may be able to get the name of a professional, perhaps a social worker or psychologist, who has experience in running groups. It’s usually a good idea to have a person like this as the facilitator, to keep things running smoothly. Make sure that this person is willing to make a commitment to the group. A facilitator is especially important if the group is for teens or children. Adults with epilepsy or parents may be able to carry on without a professional facilitator, but someone will need to take the lead.

Not every new group is a success, of course, especially right away. You can’t control how much support you get from others. But even if your group has to struggle, you can feel good about making the effort! If it’s impossible for you to find or start a suitable support group, participating in online discussions (like the Community Forum at epilepsy.com) will provide some (but not all) of the benefits of a face-to-face support group. And it’s a way to keep the community feeling going between group meetings!

Topic Editor: Steven C. Schachter, M.D. Last Reviewed:12/15/06

Show All Care and Treatment Journey of Epilepsy

Care and Treatment

 

TREATMENT

 

At the Epilepsy Center, treatment of each individual patient begins with a comprehensive evaluation by a board-certified epileptologist, a neurologist who specializes in epilepsy and…

Care and Treatment

 

PRESIDENT OF AES

 

Michael Privitera, MD, Becomes President of American Epilepsy Society December 4, 2015 Media Contact: Keith Herrell (513) 558-4559 keith.herrell@uc.edu CINCINNATI—Michael Privitera, MD, professor of neurology…

Care and Treatment, Journey of Epilepsy

 

VAGUS NERVE STIMULATION

 

One day before my fiftieth birthday I returned to Cincinnati determined to make a change in my life. It was my hope to continue on…

Journey of Epilepsy, Seizure Disorders

 

SURGERY

 

Vagus Nerve Stimulation was introduced to me June 2011. While living in Chicago, IL, I developed a relationship with  epilepologist Dr. James Tao, at University of…

Journey of Epilepsy, Seizure Disorders

 

MY JOURNEY WITH EPILEPSY

 

Between the ages of five and fifteen he told his parents about “a funny feeling every once in a while.” Along with the funny feeling…

Journey of Epilepsy, Seizure Disorders

 

ADVANCES IN ABSENCE SEIZURES

 

by Sloka Iyengar, PhD Basic Science Contributor, Epilepsy.com Last Reviewed: 2/19/14 Absence (petit mal) seizures are usually seen in children and are characterized by abrupt…

Page 1 of 212»

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pkY0nIesi7s&feature=youtu.be

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CZQ__zOTBiE&feature=youtu.be

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8NrQ_O1fwiU&feature=youtu.be

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F4kmmkOPMSw&feature=youtu.be

 


SEIZURE FREE

This information is not intended as medical advice. In the case of an emergency please request professional medical assistance.

Growing up as a Black man in America comes with many challenges. Some of the challenges are outside of our community, but many are within the Black community. Many subjects are taboo and shoved under the rug as someone else’s problem. Epilepsy is one of many disparities that is ignored and leads to lack of proper healthcare. Around the age of five years old, I would tell my parents of a “strange” feeling that I would have every once in a while. That strange feeling never went away. My living with epilepsy became a secret. Ten years later, there was a diagnosis associated with that “strange” feeling.

 

 

Quite often, epilepsy was associated as a curse. Many have used The Bible equating epilepsy with demons or evil spirits. Those who choose to be knowledgeable about epilepsy would know that one can have a seizure without being diagnosed with epilepsy. Quite often, epilepsy was associated as a curse. Many have used The Bible equating epilepsy with demons or evil spirits.Those who choose to be knowledgeable about epilepsy are aware&nbsp;that one can have a seizure without having been diagnosed with epilepsy. This does not rule out Jesus’ ability and will to heal those who live epilepsy. Living with epilepsy also effects a person’s self-esteem because a person is unaware of the chagne in body, mood or psychological well-being.<br />It is a social barrier because it carries the stigma of shame. The most hurtful shame is for friends and loved ones who are not willing to learn more about living with epilepsy. My parents had a great relationship with my teachers.&nbsp;Teachers told my parents about my being a good student, but there were times when I did not pay attention. While reading outloud in English class, my tenth grade teacher recognized that I should seek medical help.

 

Medical science has made great strides to address the needs of those who live with epilepsy. New prescription drugs and surgical procedures are on the horizon every day. Providers are dispensing often prescribe a formula. In other words, more than one drug is prescribed to control the threshhold of a seizure.

What would be most effective is the change in making an effort to understand those whom epilepsy effects the most—those who live with it and those who care for them.

I admit, epilepsy is very complex. There are no two people who are exactly alike. One must look at the cause and the type of medical care one receives. My care team includes primary care physician, epileptologists, psychologist, psychiatrist, neurosurgeon, neuropsychologist, sleep doctor, nurses and technicians.

It is imperative that a person and/or a caretaker takes charge of one’s health. It has been my practice to suggest that my medical providers send notes to one another. This helps in the understanding of triggers and routines that unknowingly play a part in the threshold level of a seizure.

Support for Epilepsy

Not every group does the same things. Even groups with similar activities may have different results because of the individuals involved. But in nearly every group, members seem to find PEACE:
Practice in skills and relationships
Encouragement from meeting others who have overcome challenges like your own
Acceptance by a group of people who share your feelings and experiences
Comfort from knowing that you are not alone
Empowerment through increased knowledge and confidence

Practice: Give it a try
If you’re a person with epilepsy, you may be nervous about socializing. Maybe kids on the playground teased you about having seizures. Maybe you weren’t allowed to participate in the same activities as other kids, so you didn’t have many chances to make friends or learn to do the things that others do for fun. In an epilepsy support group, you can practice making friends and participate in activities without worrying that you’ll be rejected because you have epilepsy.

Parents of children with epilepsy also can practice skills in a support group. They can get comfortable talking about the issues they need to discuss with teachers and doctors. They can even role-play those situations, or practice parenting skills.

Encouragement: You can succeed too

It’s nice to read stories (like some on this website) about people with epilepsy who have done well—people with good educations, good jobs, happy families. It’s even nicer to meet these people in person. But it’s also nice to meet people who are still struggling. When they have a success to report, you can cheer them on and know that they will be there to cheer your successes.

Acceptance: You’re OK

It’s easy to get the idea from TV and movies that the way to be accepted is to be good-looking, wear the right clothes, do the right things—and not have epilepsy. Meeting other people with epilepsy and finding that you like being around them (most of them, at least) teaches that you too are a person that people want to be with. No matter how many seizures you have, there are plenty of times when you’re just you, a person who knows things and can do things—a person who’s good to know.

If you’re a parent of a child with epilepsy, you also need to feel acceptance. You may feel guilty because you’re not patient enough or you don’t spend enough time with your child. When you meet other parents with the same challenges, you can learn that it’s impossible to be a perfect parent. It’s not wrong to have angry feelings or to wish for more time for yourself. It’s just human. Parents in a support group can help each other to do better without feeling like a failure because they can’t do it all.

Comfort: You are not alone

Epilepsy can be lonely. If you have epilepsy, you know that even the most loving family members and friends can’t really understand your feelings about being injured or embarrassed after a seizure. They can’t know how restricted you feel. They don’t wonder why they’re the only ones who have to take pills every day to keep the world from turning upside down.

If you’re the parent of a child with epilepsy, you’re probably dealing with problems that your parents never faced. The other parents in the neighborhood aren’t facing them either. A support group heals this kind of loneliness.

Empowerment: “Knowledge is power”

In a support group, you might gain knowledge that could help you control your seizures, buy your seizure medicine cheaper, find a job, get more help for your child in school—almost anything, depending on how the group operates and who the other members are. Even if you just learn more about what epilepsy is, that will help you explain it to others. Then they won’t be so worried when you’re around.

 

OK, I’m sold. Where can I find a support group?

Unless you’re in a remote area, there’s probably a support group nearby. In the United States, a good place to start looking is your local Epilepsy Foundation affiliate. Support groups also may be organized by hospitals or epilepsy centers. Your neurologist or epileptologist may have information. Sometimes groups are listed in the newspaper too.

Can’t find one?

If you’re a parent and can’t find an epilepsy group in your area, you may get some benefit from joining a group for parents of children with other chronic disorders. Some of the problems that you’re facing, such as dealing with schools and the health care system or disciplining your child, are the same. The day-to-day problems of parents whose children have another disorder are different, but you do have much in common:

  • You all share a concern for your child’s future.
  • You all want to keep your child safe but need to watch out for overprotectiveness.
  • You all need to work on emphasizing your child’s abilities instead of weaknesses.

If you’ve explored all the possibilities and haven’t found a suitable group, maybe you should start one! Talk to your doctor or someone at the Epilepsy Foundation. You may be able to get the name of a professional, perhaps a social worker or psychologist, who has experience in running groups. It’s usually a good idea to have a person like this as the facilitator, to keep things running smoothly. Make sure that this person is willing to make a commitment to the group. A facilitator is especially important if the group is for teens or children. Adults with epilepsy or parents may be able to carry on without a professional facilitator, but someone will need to take the lead.

Not every new group is a success, of course, especially right away. You can’t control how much support you get from others. But even if your group has to struggle, you can feel good about making the effort! If it’s impossible for you to find or start a suitable support group, participating in online discussions (like the Community Forum at epilepsy.com) will provide some (but not all) of the benefits of a face-to-face support group. And it’s a way to keep the community feeling going between group meetings!

Topic Editor: Steven C. Schachter, M.D. Last Reviewed:12/15/06

Show All Journey of Epilepsy Minorities

Minorities

 

NFL STAR JASON SNELLING

 

November 15, 2010 15:34 ET NFL Star Jason Snelling Speaks Up About Living With Epilepsy New Public Service Announcement Focuses on the Epilepsy Foundation’s African American…

Care and Treatment, Journey of Epilepsy

 

VAGUS NERVE STIMULATION

 

One day before my fiftieth birthday I returned to Cincinnati determined to make a change in my life. It was my hope to continue on…

Journey of Epilepsy, Seizure Disorders

 

SURGERY

 

Vagus Nerve Stimulation was introduced to me June 2011. While living in Chicago, IL, I developed a relationship with  epilepologist Dr. James Tao, at University of…

Journey of Epilepsy, Seizure Disorders

 

MY JOURNEY WITH EPILEPSY

 

Between the ages of five and fifteen he told his parents about “a funny feeling every once in a while.” Along with the funny feeling…

Journey of Epilepsy, Seizure Disorders

 

ADVANCES IN ABSENCE SEIZURES

 

by Sloka Iyengar, PhD Basic Science Contributor, Epilepsy.com Last Reviewed: 2/19/14 Absence (petit mal) seizures are usually seen in children and are characterized by abrupt…


What Is Healthcare Reform?

America’s Necessity

Question: What is Health Care Reform?

I’ve heard a lot on the news lately about health care reform, and how the healthcare system in the United States needs to be reformed. What is health care reform, and how could it affect my career in the medical field?

 

Answer: Health care reform is a complex issue, consisting of many different aspects. If you’ve worked in healthcare for a while, particularly as a provider or an executive, you probably understand this. If you are new to the health care industry, or if you have never worked in health care, this may help you to understand some of the basic points of the health reform issue.Many people, including politicians, government officials, healthcare professionals, and citizens, feel that the health care system in the United States needs a complete overhaul. Others feel that there is definitely room for improvement, but the health care system does not need to be completely transformed.The primary objectives of health care reform include:

  • Provide healthcare coverage for all (currently uninsured) Americans universally
  • Decrease the costs of health care services and coverage

Sounds like a great idea, right? The United States has extremely high health care costs, and we also have millions of people who are uninsured. So it seems obvious that we need to provide coverage for all, and decrease costs. However, those two objectives do not necessarily coincide.Most people who are insured are insured through their employer, with a company health insurance policy. Some employers pay for this coverage fully, while some employers share the costs with employees. Some people who are self-employed or unemployed must pay for their own health care insurance policy by paying a monthly premium. People over the age of 65 qualify for a government health care plan called Medicare, which is paid for mostly by taxes and other government funding. Medicaid is another government funded program that insures those who are too poor to afford their own insurance. Additionally, there are government-funded state plans and children’s plans to cover yet more citizens who otherwise would not be able to afford health insurance coverage. However, there are millions of Americans who do not qualify for any of these insurance plans.

Many people feel that providing healthcare coverage to the millions of people who are currently uninsured would cause the health system to be overloaded, resulting in long waits and overworked clinicians.

Decreasing costs of health care services is another major endeavor. The United States does have costly health care, but also has some of the highest quality of healthcare. Treatments and technology in America are very advanced, and that comes with a cost, not the least of which is research and development, such as clinical trials and lab testing. Reducing the cost of healthcare would be a very good thing, but not if costs are reduced at the expense of the clinical providers, or of the companies who develop the cutting edge drug therapies and technology we enjoy in the United States.

Many factors contribute to the high cost of healthcare that people do not often consider. For example, medical malpractice laws in some areas can contribute to high health care costs. In litigious areas, rising costs of malpractice insurance cut into the bottom line of physicians and hospitals, who must then pass those costs on to the patients. In addition to rising malpractice insurance costs, fear of being sued prompts many physicians to order unnecessary tests to cover themselves. These additional tests also contribute to the high cost of healthcare.

If a doctor makes a careless mistake, he or she should pay for it; however, sometimes malpractice suits are filed frivilously or unnecessarily which contributes to the higher health costs.

So how do we reform healthcare? One way is to try to make it more efficient. Perhaps implementing EMR is the answer to making all of healthcare more efficient. EMR can help, but there are costs associated with developing, implementing, and maintaining an EMR system that works effectively. In 2009, President Obama has mandated the use of EMR in physician practices to get the ball rolling in this area. Many politicians and government officials are trying to figure out additional ways to make health care more efficient, thus decreasing its costs.

Increasing coverage to the millions of uninsured presents a challenge as well. The Obama Administration is currently working on offering an “optional” public health care insurance plan to cover the uninsured. Some fear that this optional plan would soon become the only plan, and then we would have only one option – the government. At that point, we would then have a system similar to those in Europe and Canada. Many feel this would be a good thing for America. Others feel that this would cause the quality of care to decline (as it has in many areas where national health care is provided), and cause very long waits (six months to one year) for medical care.

The above considerations are just a few of the most prominent issues that are involved in health care reform. So if health care reform is implemented, how would it affect your health career? That depends on what exactly is implemented. But most agree that healthcare reform would result in an increased workload in a number of ways, due to both the increased regulation and the additional patient load from the millions of people who would suddenly become insured.

If the optional public health care plan puts the private insurers out of business, then basically all physicians and medical providers would then be working for the U.S. government at that point. Obviously, that would decrease your options for employers, because the government would be then be controlling all of health care, as it does in Canada and Europe, where all physicians and health care workers now work for the government.

 As you can probably see by the above issues, health care reform is an enormous undertaking that is multi-faceted and there is most likely no one simple solution.

Get Covered America’s #GotCovered Series: After Almost Half a Century

Health Care Act

 

MAKING LIFE BETTER FOR WORKING AMERICANS

 

Medicaid Expansion Making Life Better for Working Americans Posted by caheidelberger The Affordable Care Act is improving and saving lives by expanding Medicaid: Charles McClinon,…

Health Care Act

 

US SENATOR SHERROD BROWN AND MEDICAID EXPANSION

 

With Insurance for Nearly Half a Million Ohioans on the Line, Brown Calls on Ohio Legislators to Approve Funding to Continue Medicaid Expansion While Governor…

Health Care Act

 

U.S. CONGRESSIONAL RECORD

 

February 3, 2015 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD — SENATE S733 charged higher premiums, and 700,000 Ohioans—people in my State—now have health insurance they did not have 5…

Health Care Act

 

MEDICAID IN ACTION

 

Medicaid in Action Ohioans are reaping the rewards of the state’s Medicaid expansion as lawmakers mull funding going forward BY NATALIE KREBS · AUGUST 5TH,…

Health Care Act

 

OBAMACARE BRINGS CHANGES

 

Obamacare brings dramatic changes for uninsured, hospitals, insurers COMMENT(4) 3 13 11 614 By Randy Tucker Staff Writer The impact the Affordable Care Act has…

Health Care Act

 

HEALTHCARE INSURANCE HAS ITS PLACE

 

Posted: 7:40 p.m. Saturday, Sept. 27, 2014  Obamacare brings dramatic changes for uninsured, hospitals, insurers COMMENT(1)  3 10 10 434  By Randy Tucker Staff Writer The impact the…

Page 1 of 212»

 

When I found out I qualified for Medicaid it was

Show All Health Care Act Journey of Epilepsy Seizure Disorders Support

Support

 

REACH OUT FOR SUPPORT

 

Living day-to-day life is always a journey. Learning to live a normal life with epilepsy can be a struggle,…

Health Care Act

 

MAKING LIFE BETTER FOR WORKING AMERICANS

 

Medicaid Expansion Making Life Better for Working Americans Posted by caheidelberger The Affordable Care Act is improving and saving…

Health Care Act

 

US SENATOR SHERROD BROWN AND MEDICAID EXPANSION

 

With Insurance for Nearly Half a Million Ohioans on the Line, Brown Calls on Ohio Legislators to Approve Funding…

Health Care Act

 

U.S. CONGRESSIONAL RECORD

 

February 3, 2015 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD — SENATE S733 charged higher premiums, and 700,000 Ohioans—people in my State—now have health…

Health Care Act

 

MEDICAID IN ACTION

 

Medicaid in Action Ohioans are reaping the rewards of the state’s Medicaid expansion as lawmakers mull funding going forward…

Health Care Act

 

OBAMACARE BRINGS CHANGES

 

Obamacare brings dramatic changes for uninsured, hospitals, insurers COMMENT(4) 3 13 11 614 By Randy Tucker Staff Writer The…

Care and Treatment, Journey of Epilepsy

 

VAGUS NERVE STIMULATION

 

One day before my fiftieth birthday I returned to Cincinnati determined to make a change in my life. It…

Health Care Act

 

HEALTHCARE INSURANCE HAS ITS PLACE

 

Posted: 7:40 p.m. Saturday, Sept. 27, 2014  Obamacare brings dramatic changes for uninsured, hospitals, insurers COMMENT(1)  3 10 10 434  By Randy…

Journey of Epilepsy, Seizure Disorders

 

SURGERY

 

Vagus Nerve Stimulation was introduced to me June 2011. While living in Chicago, IL, I developed a relationship with  epilepologist…

Journey of Epilepsy, Seizure Disorders

 

MY JOURNEY WITH EPILEPSY

 

Between the ages of five and fifteen he told his parents about “a funny feeling every once in a…

Health Care Act

 

ADVOCATES FOR OHIO MEDICAID

 

Advocates for Ohio Charles McClinon Hamilton County Charles McClinon is a 51 year old male living with epilepsy in Cincinnati….

Health Care Act

 

MEDICAID ENROLLMENT

 

Millions enrolling into Medicaid, now what? By Lisa Bernard-Kuhnlbernard@enquirer.com In the coming days Charles McClinon will learn whether he’s…

Health Care Act

 

HEALTH CARE ENROLLMENT EXTENDED

 

The Obama administration will grant extra time to Americans who say they are unable to enroll in health care…

Health Care Act

 

HEALTH INSURANCE

 

Access to medical care and appropriate treatments is critical to the health, family, and employment for individuals living with…

Support

 

MCCLINON LLC

 

McClinon LLC Building A Branding Empire Website Consultation available. We help entrepreneurs and small business to build a brand to…

Journey of Epilepsy, Seizure Disorders

 

ADVANCES IN ABSENCE SEIZURES

 

by Sloka Iyengar, PhD Basic Science Contributor, Epilepsy.com Last Reviewed: 2/19/14 Absence (petit mal) seizures are usually seen in…

Support

 

PERSONAL SUPPORT

 

You Are Not Alone Many living with epilepsy feel that they are alone. Epilepsy is often difficult to explain…

Health Care Act

 

HEALTH CARE NEEDS REFORM

 

The New York Times: On The Frontiers Of Brain Research President Obama officially announced his new brain research initiative on Tuesday,…

the best day of my life.

 

Once they (insurance company) found out I had epilepsy, it became a pre-existing condition.

 

When I found out I qualified for Medicaid it was the best day of my life.

 

Once they (insurance company) found out I had epilepsy, it became a pre-existing condition.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Traumatic Brain Injury Fact Sheet – National Brain Health Center for                          5

African-­‐Americans (a program of The Balm In Gilead, Inc.)